THE CITY OF SALERNO
Salerno was founded in the pre-Roman age, became a Roman colony since 197 B.C., a Langobard princedom since 847 A.D., and a Norman one since 1076. It was part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
The architecture of Salerno has greatly been influenced by Langobard domination, while Naples is mostly characterized by Byzantine art.
Langobard people, which came from Scandinavia, arrived in Italy in the sixth century. Their first settlement was in the Northern part of Italy, in fact Pavia was their capital. During the successive centuries they moved South, so the dukedom of Benevento was founded and Salerno became part of it.
Nowadays, Arechi Castle overlooks Salerno and represents one of the most remarkable remains of Langobard age. It covered a key role in the defense system of the town, in fact it was the starting point of the surrounding walls that protected the town up to the seaside.
In Medieval ages Salerno welcomed some towering scientists. In fact, in the ninth century the “Schola Salernitana” was established. It has been the first medical school of the world, and in which Christian, Jewish and Arabic doctors and researchers worked together in Salerno. Only the successive foundation of the University of Naples undermined its academic supremacy, but Salerno Medical School is also remembered to be the first one that accepted women as students and lecturers.
Salerno covered an important role also in the twentieth century, especially during the Second World War, being the capital of Italy for five months, when Allies disembarked in the South of Italy.